In ancient times, when we did not understand what a word meant by another term, we used a dictionary or someone interprets it. However, using a dictionary to know whether a foreign word or phrase is meaningful and frustrating, as some words have different meanings. Today we have made a long way to use a dictionary. Nowadays, documents or materials in other languages ​​can easily be translated into a machine or company. Businesses are more in need of this now, especially if they want to enter the international market, but the big decision is to choose how to compile documents. Both, one man and one machine, have their own advantages and disadvantages. However, this article translates more into machine translation.

What is the compiler?

This century has undoubtedly created a number of new technologies and tools that have facilitated and interconnected life. Such a tool that facilitated contact with countless people from other countries, a machine translator. As a computer-aided translation, this tool uses software specifically designed to modify texts and verbal messages from one language to another. This kind of technology and companies offering translation services have played a vital role in globalization.

Advantages of Machine Translation

* It Saves Time. Nowadays time is a very valuable commodity and a machine translation ensures that a company does not stay with valuable workforce and hours through the crossing of dictionaries, simply to transform a simple passageway. Now there is a set of translation software that can quickly and accurately perform the job.

* Compilers are relatively affordable. Companies first think that a compiler is not a good investment, but yields are worth long-term. Competing companies generally charge a fee per page, and depending on how long or complicated the document is, it may be expensive.

* Businesses do not have to worry about secrecy when using a compiler. Delivering sensitive data or information to the translator may be risky and management should invest additional resources to ensure that they are protected. This kind of trouble will not happen if a machine is used.

* Translators can translate any language, while a specialist limits the language to which it specializes.

] * Some translated information may be inaccurate or confusing. The sad truth is that some machine translated documents would not be 100% accurate. The machine uses a word document to spell out without actually understanding the data or data you want to process. This means that while the essence of the document exists, some details or sentences must be manually corrected before the document becomes meaningful.

* Being a machine, it's a rule system. The context and the shades of the language can not be captured by a compiler

If a business turns to a compiler or translation agency, companies should still assess the advantages and disadvantages of both options before choosing the best one to match their translation needs.

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T The ranslation of Japanese into English, as one would imagine, is a painstaking procedure. This is because, unlike translation of European languages ​​into English, the translator often comes across words or phrases where the meaning can not be expressed entirely in English. When faced with this conundrum, the translator has 2 options:

(1) compromise by using an English word or phrase that closely resembles the Japanese, but does not quite transfer its full meaning, so part of the meaning becomes' lost in translation '; or

(2) rework the whole sentence or even paragraph to transfer the full meaning. More often than not, the professional translator will need to opt for option 2 in order to fully transfer the meaning of Japanese over to the English.

The above mentioned conundrum appears with varying frequency depending on the type of passage being translated. The conundrum would arise again and again when translating an emotive passage containing lots of metaphors by the famous author Yukio Mishima. On the other hand, the conundrum appears small in legal documents. This is because, in whatever language they are written in, the main purpose of legal documents is to clearly express the intention of the parties to it – they are emotionless documents. Therefore, in fact fact, legal translation is far easier to translate than, for example, translation of a Japanese novel.

This is not to say that Japanese legal translation is easy. I was lucky enough to have legal training in law and a training contract for 2 years in a law firm where I drafted legal documents every day, giving me an intricate understanding of legal vocabulary and concepts. I also have a working understanding of the Japanese legal system, so I'm going to come across very few words or concepts that are unfamiliar to me while doing my translations

Legal Japanese translation is beginning to become a more in demand service. This is mainly due to the increasing acceptance of litigation in Japanese personal and business life. The Japanese have a strong sense of honor and traditionally held a very suspicious view of lawyers, but increasingly the Japanese see lawyers as indispensable protectors of their legal rights and valuable business assets, especially in the international community.

There has been a particular increase in the Japanese legal translation market through document reviews. This is where a Japanese client has employed a law firm for representation in a dispute, and the law firm initiates a process where paralegals are asked to sift through mounds of documents to find any which may prove decisive for their client's case. All the documents they pick out must be given to a legal Japanese translation expert to prepare them for use at court.

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Limiting unnecessary costs is important in business translation. Even though you decide to apply automated software as a business translator, you can reduce costs, this will cost you more time over time due to the negative results described below.

first Deadly errors are often the results of automated business translation.

Translation software makes silly mistakes, even a rookie human speaker never. For example, in a Reuters article, an automated prescription translation service taught Spanish-speaking patients to take tablets eleven times a day when the original English instruction instructed the user to take it once a day. How can this happen? The term "once" means eleven in Spanish. It's not unusual for software to do such deadly translation mistakes.

A more serious example: Four prostate cancer sufferers died in Epinal, France, after having mis-translated labels followed their prostate medications. If the doctor's office had used human-professional translation services instead of automated software, the four men would still be living. Let's get in the language science why it is best to choose a human business translator.

2nd Dialects interfere with software translators.

Social class and geographic location affect people's speech. This multiplies the amount of words and phrases involved in business translation. Suppose you want to buy special types of fasteners from Indian manufacturers. Taking into account that the Indians speak in thirty languages ​​and two thousand different dialects, the choice of the interpretation software is foolish. While human translators appreciate the shades of social class and site-based dialects, translation software is short in this area. It could be bad for bad moms or screws if you are trying to use automated business translation services.

3rd Certain words are unique in their language, which includes translation software.

Some words can only be found in one language. English, for example, includes the weird word gobbledygook – this concept is not full of a single word in another language. Successful translation of such words requires cultural recognition that automated compilers are missing. An interesting business translator is, however, fully capable of replacing a longer term in such situations.

4th The sophisticated writing techniques will lose the translations produced by the software.

Style, word and sound are important in writing. They convey a "line item" message, which a native speaker is likely to pick up. A professional translation program is short because it can not translate word game, such as punches – and emotional sounds are often lost when an expression is performed by an automated process.

5th The compiler conflicts with the idiom.

Strangers are odd sentences that have no meaning without cultural knowledge. For example, while "Turn it loose" was a successful invitation to US consumers to enjoy Coors' beer, the same sentence was disgusting for Spanish speakers using this exact term to describe diarrhea. This is just a shocking example that shows why human translators like translating software.

6th Word-for-word translations do not always understand.

This type of translation software is inevitably complicated or even comical because of the simple reason the software does not appreciate the shades of human experience.

Business translation services deserve their prizes because each business translator understands that culture. For this reason, business translators are much more likely to reach the meaning of more meaningful moves – less significant conclusions that break down the sale of the product and destroy delicate transactions if not translated correctly.

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An expert is a person practicing a particular profession that allows them to earn a living. This definition is very abundant and makes no distinction between veterinarians, teachers, craftsmen and translators.

The translator must be a professional, not amateur or improvised, and this applies in particular to literary translators. You have to be very strict in your work to guarantee a true version of a copyright book and do not estimate the author or the reader. This is combined with a unique talent with both source and target language skills and mastery, with full commitment and plenty of time to make it right and make a good compiler.

You often hear the phrase "traduttore – traditore", which means that a translator is necessarily a traitor. This can happen very often when someone thinks that just because they speak English, Spanish or German at home, as their families have such extracts, they can make good translations. So it just goes ahead and translates books written by important authors without actually being able to do it. Most of their work is amateur and not very poor.

In such cases, the publisher is often flawed because he does not thoroughly review the work he receives and publishes it without being subject to strict control.

Very upgraded writers said that writing a book requires difficult and long and limited working hours, but the book's translation is even harder, perhaps the hardest any pursuit.

But the inept teacher thinks differently: he's convinced the translation is very simple. Simply translate words instead of words instead of expanding their entire ideas. So the reader can not easily understand the translated text, which often misrepresents the author's concepts with the wrong translator.

As we've already mentioned, a good translator, especially a good literary translator, is a true professional and artist who not only speaks his own language, but also about whom he translates and who knows people well and is involved in translating a foreign author; an educational and cultural background that is truly capable of interpreting the concepts expressed by the original author.

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Nowadays world business people are globalized and international markets. In other words, more and more companies are striving for their business commitment not only to the traditionally run country or territory, but also to regions that sometimes have a completely different culture and often have language usage. To communicate with this new customer base, companies often need the services of a technical translation company. Just as with the prudence you expect to buy a good or a service, you must remember that not all translators meet the requirements and the quality quality requirements. How do you choose the best and avoid those that are weak?

One of the best approach you can do is to go to certified and accredited companies (in some countries, however, technical translation companies do not have the possibility of accreditation, in this case your past performance and references). This would mean that someone else evaluated the quality of the service they offered and found that this was the standard. Nevertheless, make sure that the rating comes from a recognized certification organization. Accredited translation companies must keep certain minimum requirements to ensure that their reputation is not delayed. This is one way to ensure that the technical interpreter dealing with the project is competent and professional.

Before you judge a job and associate it with a specialized translation company, ask the samples. It would be a great plus for a company to translate not just the language, from which to translate or translate, but to translate the text of that type of industry. I could also say that the material translations are indispensable for niche-specific experiences, especially since no reliable translation agency would accept your order if you do not have the appropriate language pair professionals! It would also be appropriate to request copies of "thank you" letters and certificates.

Another key component is cost. You have to remember that you get what you pay for. Do not go to the company that offers the cheapest service, only get a job that's so bad that it might be necessary to fix a bug for hiring a different company. This would in effect nullify the savings they had to achieve. In price negotiation, note that there are companies that offer merely a translation price, and exclude other related services, such as proofreading. To resolve this, your Request For Proposal (RFP) or any other similar document you choose to use for a translation company should clearly identify what you expect from the selected company while leaving the company to provide additional information value-added service at no extra charge. This provision allows you to evaluate all companies that you want to use on an equal footing.

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Arrf, Woof, Bow-wow! Have you wondered what these dog sounds mean Do you think your dog is trying to say something very important to you? Well, maybe he can find out. Japanese Toy Takara claims that the new dog-translator of Bow-Lingual actually translates dog sounds into human words and phrases.

The device consists of two parts: a radio microphone that connects to the collar of the dog, the owner who says that translates the dog bark. The translator is able to translate rumble, groans, and whims to phrases such as "I am hungry", "walk" and "I am tired". Expressions and illustrations are also displayed on the LCD's LCD monitor. Although sentences are far from complicated sentences, they write a reasonable job what the dog wants or thinks.

Bow-Lingual has a data translation mode that allows the owner to track the dog's perceived emotion over time. The dog translator includes a Body Language Translation mode, a training mode, and a medical reference mode. It uses 5 "AAA" batteries, and the first kit is usually included.

So how does Bow-Lingual occur in human conversation? Well, the device uses a device known as the animal Emotion Analysis System. This basically means that there is a large database of dog sounds that are translated into the human language by dog ​​experts. So, when the dog gives a special tone, the device will match the closest sound to its database and equalize human equivalence. Thus, the accuracy of the device depends to a great extent on the expertise of the experts before they can correctly assign words and phrases to barking the dog. And that, of course, is far from perfect science.

The device was originally sold for more than $ 150, but it is now available for $ 40-50. At this price you should try out if you're wondering if your hairy best friend is trying to tell you.

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Translation is an important factor in bringing people and businesses closer to the world. Ethytically, the term "translation" means "transmission" or "transmission". Thus, the translation can eliminate linguistic barriers that often hinder effective communication. If a company, individual or organization wants to communicate or share information with other people and business contacts, you can use a professional agency in Toronto or any other major Canadian city.

is a detailed, complex process in which a compiler or language tester expresses the content of the content in the first language in another language. As you convert the text from one language to another, the report must be the same. In general, the first language is referred to as "source language" and the language into which the text is translated is known as "target language".

Language translations with a certified translation office, Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Calgary or any other major Canadian city, are usually of a professional standard. However, dealing with foreign languages ​​is not as easy as it can be imagined. It would not be reasonable to assume that translation simply changes the word text from one word to another.

For the first time translation, the subject of the source text requires intense research. The translator must, of course, have a thorough knowledge of source and target languages. Ideally, the translator will have the mother tongue in the target language. Plus, the translator has in-depth knowledge and understanding of the habits and lifestyles of the group of people who use the reverse work to translate the full translation. In addition, the translator must be a specialist with specialization such as legal, medical, technical, scientific or commercial translations.

Translation work is not a mechanical process where you just translate all source words into your targeted language. Much more factors have to be taken into account in order to obtain a precise and culturally satisfactory output in the target language.

Some factors that a translator must understand and keep in mind:

1. Source and Target Language Effective Context – The meaning and connotation of the same concept can be very different in two languages.

2. Grammatical Rules for Both Languages ​​- Grammar is an essential part of language translation, and each language has its own structural rule that must be respected.

3. Correct spelling in the target language, for example in English and American English, may also be spelled in the same spelling. For example, the English word "color" will be "colored" in English.

4. Writing conventions of the target language – These conventions include spellings, punctuation, capital letters, grammar, and paragraphs. The translator should use the correct conventions to increase the readability of the paper.

5. The meaning of source and target idioms and expressions is often a complex issue. For example, if the English word "carry the heart on your finger" literally translated, it probably will not have the same meaning in another language.

6. Using the dots and commas for decimals and thousands of numbers in different languages ​​is different. This is important since the English is the Convention 1000.01, while the Spanish is 1.000,01. This is to be taken into account in the high quality of Spanish translations.

7. In addition, in translating certain languages, such as Arabic and Hebrew, the translator must turn to the left and right alphabet.

In addition to the above mentioned factors, it is important to create a bug-free translation and correct the translation against the source text. Editing in different stages is a good way to make a mistake-free copy. And even before editing the final copy, final proofing is required.

Keep these things in mind while choosing a translation office in Toronto or any other big Canadian city

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Machine translation (MT) systems are now everywhere. This spread is due to the combination of translation needs in today's global market and the exponential growth in computing power that made these systems viable. Under the right circumstances MT systems are effective tools. Low quality translations are offered in cases where low-quality translation is better than no translation at all, or where a rough translation of a large document delivered in a second or minute is more useful than a translation done within a good three weeks. Unfortunately, despite the wide availability of MT, it is clear that the purpose and limitations of such systems are often misunderstood and overestimated. In this article I would like to give you a brief overview of how MT systems work and how to make the best use of them. Then I present the data of the use of Internet-based MT and show that there is a gap between the planned and actual use of such systems and that users still need to educate the MT system effectively

that a computer compiler applies the grammatical rules of the languages ​​in question, combining them into a kind of "memory" dictionary to produce the resulting translation. And indeed, this was basically how some earlier systems worked. But the most up-to-date MT systems actually use a statistical approach that is fairly "linguistic blind". In essence, the system is the corpus of the example texts. The result is a statistical model that contains information such as:

– "if words in succession (a, b, c) occur, X% has the chance to use the words (d, e, f) occur in translation "(NB: you do not have to have the same number of words in each pair);

– "if word (a) is in two consecutive words in the target language, then if there is an X% chance that word (b) ends in -Y.

Because of the huge amount of such observations, the system then compiles a sentence, taking into account the various candidate translations – almost randomly (actually through some "naive selection processes") – and most statistically

Listening to this high-level description of how MT, most people are surprised that such a "linguistic-blind" approach works at all. Even more surprisingly, it generally works better than a rule-based system. This is partly because it is based on grammatical analysis itself and gives errors in the equation (automated the analysis is not completely accurate and people do not always agree on the analysis of the sentence.) The "bare text" system training allows you to rely on a much more data-based system than otherwise possible: grammatically analyzed texts are small and small and far apart; The "bare text" pages are available in their trillion.

However, this approach means that the quality of the translations depends very much on how much the elements of the source text represent the elements originally used in the system. If you accidentally enter it, you either send it back or vous avez demander (instead of going back or vous avez demandé), the system is hampered by the fact that the returned series probably did not occur in the training corps (or even worse , they could have quite different meanings because they needed to return their will to the attorney). And because the system has little grammatical meaning (such as a return form of return, and "the infinite will probably be afterwards"), there is actually little continuation.

Similarly, you can request the system to translate a sentence that is perfectly grammatical and general in everyday use, but contains features that are not necessarily common in the training corpus. MT systems are usually formulated for text types for which human translations are available, such as the transmission of technical or business documents or multilingual parliaments and conferences. Thus, MT systems show natural prejudices towards certain formal or technical texts. And even if the everyday vocabulary is still part of the training corpus, the grammar of ordinary talk (for example, instead of spanish, rather than the current tension, instead of the spanish language, is not possible in the future).

MT systems in practice

Researchers and developers of computer translation systems have always been aware that one of the greatest threats is the public perception of their purpose and limitations. Somers (2003) [1] observed the use of MT on the Internet and in chat rooms, notes that: "The increased visibility of MT has many side effects […]. The public's low quality of raw MT is important why it is so low quality." Observing the use of MT in 2009 sadly provides little evidence that users are aware of these issues.

As an illustration I present a small sample of data from a Spanish-English MT service, which is the Español-English web site. The service works by using user input, it uses some "cleaning" processes (for example, correcting some correct translation errors and decrypting frequent "SMS texts"), then looking for a translation in the Spanish-English dictionary and ( b) MT motor. Currently, Google Translator is used for the MT engine, although you can use a custom engine in the future. The figures presented here are from 549 Spanish-English queries analyzed from machines originating from Mexico [2] – in other words, we assume that most users are translating their mother tongue.

First of all, what are the people who use the MT system? For each query, I made a "best guess" attempt to compile a query. In many cases, the goal is obvious; in some cases it is clearly ambiguous. With this speech, I consider that in about 88% of cases, proper use is fairly straightforward and will categorize these uses as follows:

    Search for a single word or phrase: 38%
  • Translate formale text: 23%
  • Internet chat: 18%

Surprising (possibly not alarming!) Observation is that in most cases, users use the translator to express a single word or phrase. In fact, 30% of queries consisted of a single word. The statement is somewhat surprising as the Spanish-English dictionary on the site in question also suggests that users are disturbed by the purpose of dictionaries and translators. Though there were no raw numbers, there were obvious cases when successive searches were made when a user appeared to have deliberately split a sentence or phrase that would probably have been better translated if they were left together. Perhaps as a result of the overrun of a student, when using dictionaries, we see a query called "quarter to", which is immediately followed by a query number. Obviously, there is a need for the general education of students and users between the electronic dictionary and the machine translator [3]: in particular, a dictionary directs the user to select the correct translation by context, word or single-person searches, they work on sentences and receive a single word or phrase, simply the most commonly translated translation.

It is estimated that in less than a quarter of cases users use the MT system as a "trained" goal of translating or formatting an official text (and a whole sentence or at least a partial sentence rather than an isolated noun). Of course it is impossible to say whether any of the translations were intended to be published without further proof, which is not necessarily the purpose of the system.

The use of translation of formal texts now almost compete with translation is informal on-line chat – an environment that MT systems do not normally form. The online chat environment poses particular problems for MT systems as there are frequent features such as non-standard spelling, lack of punctuation, and conversational scenes not found in other contextual contexts. For efficient translation effectively, a dedicated (and possibly custom-built) corpus dedicated system is required.

Not surprisingly, students use MT to perform their homework. But it's interesting to note how and how. It is a fact that the homework involves a mixture of "fair use" (the practice of understanding) with the attempt to "take the computer to carry out their homework" (sometimes with potentially serious results). Queries classified as homework include sentences that are obviously the instructions of the exercises and sentences that explain trivial generalities that are not common in a text or conversation but which are characteristic of beginners' homework.

Whatever use, users and designers are both the source of errors in the source text that may hinder the translation. In fact, more than 40% of queries contained such errors, with some queries that contained more. The most common errors were the following (Query for each word and phrase was excluded for these numbers):

  • Missing pronunciations: 14% Query
  • Missing punctuation: 13%
  • Other spelling mistakes: 8%
  • Grammatically incomplete sentence: 8%

Considering that, in the majority of cases, users who have been translated from their mother tongue, users seem to underestimate the importance of using standard orthography to get the best chance of good translation. It is far finer that users do not always understand that the translation of a word may depend on one another and that translator work is more difficult if the grammatical components are incomplete, so queries like hoy and awards are not uncommon. Such queries hinder the translations because the chance of a block of a training corpus, say such a "tedious" submission, will be thin.

There is currently a lack of performance between MT systems and user expectations. I believe that I take responsibility for eliminating this gap in the hands of both developers and users and instructors. Users need to think more about their source theory as "MT-friendly" and learn how to evaluate the output of MT systems. Language courses should address these issues: learning the use of computer translation tools should be seen as an essential part of language learning. And developers, including myself, have to think about how we can meet the tools we offer to meet the needs of the users.

Somers (2003), "Machine Translation: The Latest Developments" is the Oxford Handbook of Computer Linguistics, OUP.

[2] This odd number is simply because queries matching the selection criteria have been fixed randomly within a specified time. Note that the system for disconnecting the machine from the IP address is not completely accurate.

[3] If a user speaks to the system in question, a translation will be displayed during the translation, indicating that the user gets a better result using the site's dictionary.

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Legal documents translation is usually an expensive service offered by translation providers. Legal documents are different from ordinary documents. The translation, together with the experts, translates with the translator to produce an accurate and accurate output. Patents, legal relationships, court documents and contracts are some examples of legal documents. Due to the technical terms it contains, the translator alone can not produce a 100% accurate output unless it is a lawyer or a specialist on the subject.

Translation companies regularly eliminate costs of technical documents, such as patents and contracts, as they use professionals such as lawyers, engineers and doctors who have to pay for quality output. These companies usually have a good reputation and are ideal if you need this type of service. Most of them have a confidentiality contract in your contract, which is very important if you handle a type of service that requires the utmost secrecy.

A confidentiality clause, for those who do not know, is a clause in the agreement that you and your company have chosen to translate for you. This case guarantees that your documents are anything that does not leak into your documents or just between you and the company. This clause is very important, especially if you are dealing with legal documents in which content has a great impact on your life or work. Much money has been lost because investors and manufacturers are too enthusiastic about the company that they have patented without the encryption clause. In that case, the company may provide information to competitors on the content of the documents if they are patented or may reveal parts to a third party that may be devastating to you. The first thing you need to know before signing the agreement is the confidentiality clause contained in the contract.

Be careful if the rental company is inexpensive or inexpensive. Technical documents such as legal documents are complex and require an expert to translate it accurately. Cheap companies generally do not have the right staff with technical translations and are still accepting the job. This means there is a great chance that their output is inaccurate. Finally, you need to find another company that will be able to translate it accurately and accurately.

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"Language formulates thoughts and emotions, determining the perception of reality". Benjamin Whorf

From the time the United States won its independence, intellectual Americans tried to define the new identity. When we talk about American social identity, these elements and names come to mind:






Melting pot, apple cake,

I have chosen the language that I think in every culture is a key factor in developing social identity.
As to the subject, such questions arise in the mind.

What is Social Identity? What is the role of language in the development of social identity? First, we identify identity and language.

"Identity is the entire term used in social sciences that describes the individual's understanding of one's own or individual as a discrete, separate entity, social class, subculture, ethnicity, gender, etc.". Social identity is like personality and individual identity.

"Language is a system of visual, audible or tactile communication symbols and manipulation rules". This is a communication tool between people. Language is not just an expression of the community's thoughts, perceptions, feelings, emotions and values; this also means the basic expression of social identity. Language is an important element that influences the cultural and spiritual aspects of human life. Not only does language create a lot of communication between people, but it also creates a bilateral relationship between different groups and societies. Events and realities are expressed by words and sentences. Politicians enforce their ability and policies in their language and words. Nowadays, because the role of the media is very cruel, we can learn about the importance of language. So we can say that individual ideologies, religious concepts, and literature fit into language, and in fact each of them forms the nation's social identity.

In some countries, such as the United States, due to the truths of nations within geographic borders, there are many languages. "English is spoken by 82% of the population as mother tongue, American in English, and in addition to Canadian English, a group of North American dialects." 96% of the American population speaks English [19659002] Spanish is the second the most common language in the country, spoken by nearly 30 million people. "These two languages ​​had a greater impact on US social identity, English as well as Indians and Spanish than immigrant languages.

"English is the dominant international language in communication, science, business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy. The influence of the British empire is the primary cause of the first spread of language, II, economic and cultural impacts significantly accelerated the acceptance of English. "English expresses a sense of supremacy and self-confidence for Americans. Looking back on the past, English was the language of the strongest empire, the British Empire, and now English is the language of the strongest country in the United States. They are inseparable from power and English. As far as these issues are concerned, the American deserves to be a superpower and an exceptional nation.

Spanish is the second most common language in English. Spanish has been spoken in North America since the 16th century. "The Spanish population of the United States has historically been expanded due to wars and land acquisition due to territorial expansion, and the Spanish-speaking population is growing ever more modern in many parts of the country because of the majority of them or their large minority."

there are many other languages ​​that belong to different cultures, and these languages, like other factors, are responsible for American salad bowls.

As mentioned above, language is one of the most important elements of social identity, which gives a feeling of dependence or independence, superiority or inferiority, power or weakness. It even affects our personal identity as a part of social identity. You can define your social level and your position. More than the language conveys the entire history of the nation and preserves the identity of a nation.

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