Mother tongue or first language is perhaps the most popular thing for every human being. The question of language resulted in many conflicts and dissatisfaction. The primary example of such dissatisfaction is the 1952 Language Movement in Bangladesh. On the other hand, we can not live in isolation. We need to get in touch with loudspeakers in other languages. Bangladesh is considered a monolingual country in which more than 98% of the population speak in Bangla. However, there are over ten languages ​​in such a small country as Bangladesh. The ruling uruguay is an Indo-European language, but in Arabic, Santali is one of the neighbors. Mono-Khemar language family, while Chakma belongs to the Sino-Barmian language group. So although Bangladesh often appears as a language unit based on Bangla's language, it actually has a significant linguistic diversity. Communicating with other loudspeakers or our language or the communication of Lingua-Franca, which is understandable to both of us.

Today, the world has become a global village. Thanks to the communication system and the development of technology. Each country depends on others on trade, commerce, education, politics, etc. Because. As a result, we are constantly communicating with other countries and other professionals. Third world countries such as Bangladesh depend on foreign aid because they are not self-sufficient. As a result, many foreigners arrive in Bangladesh. The third factor is the factor of religion. The sacred language of Muslims is Arabic, Sanskrit for the Hindus, the Pali of Buddhists and Latin for Christians. All these factors remind us that we must learn other languages ​​than our mother tongue. According to this reality, many countries in the world have adopted the European language as a second language, often used in education, judicial power, economic activities and government work. These languages ​​are mostly official positions in the constitution of these countries. In the majority of cases, countries have adopted the language of the past colonial rulers as the second language. Sometimes these languages ​​are also called the official language. We can see this picture in many African countries. Second, some European languages ​​are very important in the world for literary and economic purposes. For example, German and French are considered as important languages ​​in the world, as both have influential literature and economic implications.

For example, many people in our country are interested in learning French because they can help them get UN jobs and jobs in multinational corporations. Another attractive motivation for learning French in Bangladesh is that it can help us immigration to Canada, as the French language skills give the person more points in the Canadian immigration point system.

My research title: "English status in Bangladesh: second language or foreign language?" I chose this topic because the English status is very interesting in socio-linguistic terms. On the one hand, English is predominantly present on all sides of our national life, and on the other hand, in our constitution, we clearly state that the language of the country is Bangladesh. In fact, we do not say anything about the status of English in our constitution. On the one hand, private companies carry out their economic activity in English while there is a government law (Bangla procholon ain1987), which states that government offices should use Bangla in their official work. Thus, from a government point of view, Bangla is the national official language of Bangladesh and English is the most important foreign language. But in fact English is the second language of the country and in many places English is more important than Bangla Bangladesh.

Second language:

The second language is any other language than the first or native language; this is typically used for geographic or social reasons. The concept must be distinguished from the foreign language; Eric Lenneberg, a linguist in a critical era, uses the second language as a hypothesis of the language that the student has deliberately learned or used after puberty. In most cases, people never reach the same level of language proficiency and understanding in their second language than their first language.

The most widely used second language (or lingua franca) was historically Latin in Latin America. It was used by the Church; by law (even today); in medicine (it starts much later); Plants, animals, fruits, nuts, etc. Horticultural and biological classification.

Latin in Europe was so used to being called vulgar (or common language); so the Latin version of the Bible is called Vulgate

English is now the most widely used second language in the world; The world's success for the whole world is due to two main reasons: the British Empire and the XX. century (and the twentieth century) have a far-reaching impact. continuing) dominance in business and entertainment areas

The French was for a while the lingua franca in Europe. In history, England and France were governed by a single crown – the royal court used French as a "peasant language". Subsequently, as the English, the French empire spread the language through colonialism. French is still one of the most widely used languages ​​in the world. (Source: Wikipedia)

If we look at the definition of the second language, we can easily say that it is the second language of English Bangladesh. This is widely used in many parts of our national life. Many people watch English TV channels and use the Internet as well. Students must study for twelve years and those who take part in the BCS Exam will be required to attend English language exams. The only thing missing from the definition above is the fact that nobody speaks English in Bangladesh except for official occasions. It is not the home language of informal conversations between family members and friends.

Foreign language:

Foreign language is a language that is not spoken by indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. This is a language that has not been spoken in the country of the person in question, so a Japanese Japanese speaker can say that Japanese is a foreign language.

Some children usually learn more languages ​​from their very young age: bilingual. These children can be said to be two native speakers: neither the language is alien to the child, even if one language is a foreign language to the overwhelming majority of the children of the child's country of birth. For example, an English-native Japanese learning is Japanese in English and Japanese, but it is not a foreign language. (Source-Wikipedia)

The above definition shows that foreign language refers to a language that is not natural. From this perspective, English can be considered a foreign language in Bangladesh as it is not native to our country. Hardly a Bangladeshi speaks English, although many people use it in education and business.

Official language:

Official language is one that has a unique status in countries, states, and other areas. This is usually the language used in the legislatures of the nation, although the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other languages ​​as well.

Officially recognized minority languages ​​are often misled by official languages. However, the language officially recognized by the State, taught in schools and used in official communication, is not necessarily an official language. For example, Ladin and Sardinia in Italy and Mirandese in Portugal are only officially recognized minority languages, not strictly speaking official languages.

Half the world's countries contain official languages. Some have only one official language, such as Albania, France or Lithuania, despite the fact that these countries have other mother tongues. Some countries have more than one official language, such as Afghanistan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Eritrea, Finland, India, Paraguay, South Africa and Switzerland.

In some countries, such as Iraq, Italy, there is an official language for the country, but other languages ​​are co-presidents in some important regions. Some countries such as Australia, Sweden, Tuvalu and the United States do not have an official language.

Some former settlements, typically French or English, are not national languages ​​or the most widely spoken languages. ] By contrast, as a result of nationalism, Irish is the "national language" and the first official language of the Republic of Ireland, although it speaks only a small fraction of its people. The English language, spoken by the majority, is only the second official language (Constitution of Ireland, Art. 8).

In some countries, the question of which language to use is related to the main political question (Source-Wikipedia)

The above definition shows that the concept of official language is complicated. According to our Constitution, English is not the official language of Bangladesh because it does not have a constitutional status. The only language mentioned in our constitution is Bangla. But it is allowed in English in our Parliament and at a number of government events. For example, if there is a government event involving foreigners, in many cases speakers speak English. Many important government documents are written in both Bangla and English. Parliamentary procedures will be translated into these two languages. When a government agency organizes a tree, the gift is often published in English.


The language of the country is clearly stated in the Bangladeshi Constitution:

The State Language

The State Language of the Republic [Bangla]. "

There is nothing in the constitution that mentions English status. English is not mentioned in a second language or official language, so if we take English in our Constitution then we can not say that English is the second language or the official language in Bangladesh.

English lawsuit in Bangladesh:

After independence, the government initiated the Bangla language court. As a result, the lower courts continue their activities in Bangla, but the English is still very influential at the Supreme Court the Supreme Court: If a lawyer wants to practice in the Supreme Court, then the English language must have a command, many of whom are judges in English, and the tendency to use the English language continues to be the revolutionary future

English in the Education Sector in Bangladesh:

Form formal and institutionalized education system started in Bangladesh under the British rule. At that time Bangladesh was part of the British Indian. There was talk of the educational medium. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium should be English rather than Sanskrit or Persian. During the British period, the media of education was largely English. In 1935 Calcutta University started to introduce Bangla in addition to English. In Bangladesh, Bangla's college use began in the 1960s. Now students can respond to exams in English or English. At the college and university level, after 1971, the government attempted to patronize Bangla and implement it by replacing English in the educational sphere, but this was not a reality because of the fundamental problems. The first problem is that there were not enough books from any field in Bangalore. This is a problem in the field of science and technology. For example, in Bangla, there is hardly any book on computing that can be used as a reference at university level.

In fact, there are three kinds of education systems in our country: the Bangla medium, the English medium and the Madrasa system. Bangla High Schools can be divided into two parts: public schools and kindergartens. In nursery schools, English is more emphasized than government schools. Some of Dhaka's famous kindergarten schools are Vikarounnesa, Holycross, Willes Little Flower and so on. Although these schools belong to the Bangla media, students need to learn 3-4 English, such as Radiant Way, Active English, Desk Work, Basic English, Brighter Grammar and so on. On the other hand, in public schools, it is primarily an English-language book published by Bangladesh's Textbook. English high schools did not follow the Bangladeshi education system and are under the supervision of the British Council. The education of these schools is English, and many English-language students are very weak in Bangladesh. There are two types of Madrassas – Dakhil and Kawmi. The Kawmi Madrasses are not recognized by the government and are not receiving help from the government. In this Madrasa, emphasis is placed on learning Arabic, Persian and Urdu, while bangling and English are neglected. On the other hand, in Dakhil Madrassas the emphasis is mainly on Arabic and Bangla, and the English are not so neglected.

So we clearly see that the difference in the Bangladeshi education system is only the educational medium. Although Bangla Bangladesh is a national official language, English secondary education institutions have more money. The growth of private universities only increased the status and significance of English in Bangladesh. There are currently more than 50 private universities in Bangladesh, and the educational medium is all English. These universities range from 2 lakh to 5 lakh back to basic education. If the field of education was in Bangla, there was hardly any student or parent who could be interested in paying such a huge amount of money to educate private universities.

From the above discussion it is obvious that in our general education system, English is equal, if not more important than Bangla. In our learning system, English is actually the second language, since every student is obliged to study a compulsory subject for twelve years. English Language and Administration:

During the linguistic movement, the Bangladeshi people feared that if Urdu was established as Pakistan's state language, all government activities are occurring in Urdu and our people are suffering. As a result of the linguistic movement, the Pakistani regime conducted governmental activities in English. After the independence of Bangladesh, the Awami League government has decided to replace the English language support with Bangla in administrative work, but after the death of Sheikh Mujib, this process has stopped and English remains the dominant language. He was born in 1987 under the rule of Ershad Bangla, Procholon Aeen. From then on, the English lost their significance in public administration. However, it should be noted that all international communications of the Bangladeshi government are conducted in English.

English in Economic Activities:

The economy of Bangladesh is based on foreign aid and the export of certain common items such as finished products, clothes, jute, tea, fish and so on and we import many things. Bangladesh is not economically independent. Trade is more popular than production. Trade requires continuous communication with foreign companies. Many of the companies involved in the trade have to use the foreign language in English. Suppose a company trades with China, which is a non-English speaking country. Then the company has to contact the Chinese company in English. If you look at ads for private sector jobs, you can easily notice that most job postings are in English. Even most private sector job postings posted in Bengali newspapers appeared in English. Almost all private jobs claim that applicants have good English proficiency. Almost all public corporations publish their annual reports in English. Some of these companies make an annual report on the Bangla version, but the emphasis is always on English. So it is clear that English is the dominant language in our economic activity.

Comparison of Arab, Sanskrit and Pali in Bangladesh:

Arab, Sanskrit, and Pali are the religious languages ​​of Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists. Even non-educated people try to learn these languages ​​as they are considered sacred. By comparing English language learning with these languages, we can see that English is of greater importance. For example, the tuition of an English training center is much higher than an Arab training center. English private teachers get 4-5 times more money than Arab private tutors (Huzur). Despite the fact that Arab has a religious attitude, English must be more important as it has economic benefits.

Comparison of English Foreign Languages, such as French, German and Farsi:

for reasons in our country. Learning languages ​​will help us increase the possibility of obtaining UN work. French language learning can also be useful for immigration to Canada. There are also good opportunities to learn these languages ​​at Dhaka University, the Federation of Francaise and the Goethe Institute. Recently, the Anglo-American Institute of North-South University has introduced the French course. On the other hand, at the time of the Muslim rule, farce represented the Bangladeshi language of the royal court and tribunal. Currently, a student can only attend a grace period on the carnival course for a semester. 250 in the Iranian Cultural Center, but there are not many students who are interested in Farsi, French and German. On the other hand, hundreds of students each year appear on TOEFL and IELTS exams in English.

From the above picture, it is clear that English status is much higher than foreign languages ​​such as German, French, and Farsi. We can not deny the reality that if a person is good in English, you can earn money in any part of Bangladesh, but if a person is in French, German or Farsi, then you can hardly find money, these languages ​​


The debate has no doubt that the English language of Bangladesh is the second language, but this reality is not reflected in our constitution. Formally Bangladesh is not known as an ESL country to the outside world. Thus Bangladesh has to announce the ESL country without delay. We do not learn English because we love Shakespeare or Dickens. We learn English from day to day. If Bangladesh is expressed as an ESL country and the English language is a clear state of the Constitution it not only reflects reality but also helps internationally. Now Bangladesh is desperate to attract foreign investors. Before any company comes to Bangladesh to explore investment opportunities, one of the key areas they are looking for is the availability of English-language students and also expecting ordinary workers to have a basic knowledge of English. When ESL becomes a country, these foreign companies, while looking for Bangladesh, will ensure the strong presence of English in this country.

The same picture is about the education sector. Many Bangladesh students want to get to developed countries such as USA, UK, Canada and Australia for higher education. If Bangladesh is expressed as an ESL country, these students will benefit, as the universities of these countries have the notion that English is of particular importance in Bangladesh.

I therefore suggest the Bangladesh government, the second language of the country, by amending the constitution


Bangladesh is the only country in the world to sacrifice their lives for the people. The 1952 History Movement is recognized internationally as the International Mother's Day. It is true that our people are emotional about their language, Bangla. However, it is true that our people are now desperate to acquire English language skills. As a result, there are now more than fifty private universities in Bangladesh. If North-South offered BBA and Computer Science courses in Bangla's media, they would not receive 10% of the number of students. It is now a good time to end the great contradiction in language and to declare Bangladesh as ESL country for our own benefit.



Academy, 2002.

2. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BANGLADESHER RASHTRABHASHA. Dhaka: Bangla

Academy, 2002.


BHASHATATTA. Dhaka: Bangla Academy, 1996.

4. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BANGLA PARIBHASHA: ITIHAS O SAMASYA. Dhaka: Bangla

Academy, 2002.

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