Is China the same as the mandarin? What about Cantons? And where do every language speak? In this article I will answer these questions.
The "Chinese" language does not exist. "Chinese" is only a group of languages, while the mandarin and the canton are part of the group. There are many Chinese dialects, including mandarin, canton, hakka, hokkien and teochew.
Mandarin and Cantonese, in this order the most important Chinese dialects. In the People's Republic of China, Mandarin is the language of administration. Education is in the Mandarin, and you can be sure that if China comes from China, it will be a mandarin.
Mandarin is based on the language spoken in Chinese, and is spoken in the whole country today. In addition to North China and Taiwan, the mandarin can not be the language spoken by people at home. They can talk to another dialect at home, but the mandarin is used at school and at work.
The Cantonese language is the dialect in China, or more precisely in the Canton of Guangdong (Mandarin). This southern province is one of China's most entrepreneurial and richest. Over the centuries, many migrants from the Canton moved to all parts of the world seeking business opportunities.
Early migrants did not speak about mandarin, so among the overseas Chinese, cantons have been talking more often than mandarin. Nowadays, Cantons are still very much alive in South China and if they wish to pursue business, it will be advantageous to speak at least some Cantons. In fact, Cantonese takes the role of "secondary dialect" in South China. People who speak other dialects at home (such as Teochew or Hokkien) speak Cantonese language about their relationship with different dialect groups in South China.
If you are freely moving throughout China, then the mandarin will be the best language to learn. If you only deal with people from South China, you will have to learn some Cantonese phrases. Although Cantonese people speak Mandarin, some Cantonese expressions have to be a long way to get closer to them.
Taiwan as in China uses the official Mandarin language. Other spoken languages are Hakka and Taiwanese Minnan (Taiwanese). You will be completely free to Taiwan when you talk about the mandarin.
Hong Kong is a matter of its own. As it borders on the Canton, Cantonese is the most spoken language. But in contrast to their peers in the canton of the motherland, most of Hong Kong did not learn the Mandarin school, but in English. In the Hong Kong subway, announcements are of Cantonese origin, then in English, and Mandarin is the third language.
Hong Kong joined China in 1997, the city's education system did not give priority to Mandarin. With the growing importance and availability of China, the mandarin now appears in Hong Kong. But you're still more likely to understand a Hong Kong in English than a mandarin. Cantonese is the first language. You will hear a lot of mandarin speaking in the city, but these are usually the mainland Chinese who are visiting or working in the city.
Singapore was originally a nationality Chinese territory. The Chinese of Singapore are the descendants of migrants who came mainly from South China. Historically, many Chinese dialects have been spoken in Singapore, Hokkien, Teochew and Cantonese are the most common.
However, over the last few decades, Mandarin has been studying in Singapore schools and now is the unified language between Singaporean Chinese languages. Old Chinese Singapore does not always speak Mandarin, but it is your best bet. There is a group of English-educated older Chinese people who do not speak well about Mandarin, though they can fluently speak Cantonese or other dialects. The younger generation of Chinese singers (under the age of 40) is quite familiar with Mandarin. They can speak Cantonese or other dialects at home, but are generally less fluent than (big) parents.
Conclusion: There will be no problem in Singapore to speak in English. If you want to build closer ties with Singaporean Chinese, learn from the mandarin.
Hong Kong continues to speak proudly in Cantonese, and it will take decades. Although mandarin is more and more important. In the rest of the world, mandarin is now more important than Cantonese.
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