The essay "Miseria and Explendor de la traduccion" (Misery and Splendor of Translation) published in 1937 in La Nacion, Buenos Aires, Jose Ortega y Gasset, said that "translate" utopian aspirations " according to "human aspirations unfeasible, the fate of man – his privilege and honor, he never achieves what he intends to do and pure pretense, a living utopia. always begins to defeat, and before he goes to the wounded who is already wounded in a temple, this is what happens in this humble occupation that translates, intellectual is not a humble task but overdoes. "[19659002] In his study, however, he increasingly concludes that translation is not only possible, but also a very important task, as this is why readers and readers, even if they are" using a rather irritating device "

It is a fact that we know that the translator's work is a very complex profession, and that is to say that they are usually started by translating commercial, legal, technical and scientific texts, considering that they use the "sui generis" terminology, in most Western languages, as Ortega y Gasset examines in his essay, such translations can be realized even if the authors have the grammar of their own language, the case, as the translators know, is indeed exceptional, but any translator wants to enter the literary field, and after trying their luck on this specialty Although we do not care about any other work though struggling with technical manuals, commercial documents, and legal contracts, we must continue to gain our daily bread, even if it is interesting and learned a lot from them, even more joyful intellectual satisfaction in our business I know that to return to a literary text to acquaint her author with the desire to move deep into the deepest sense of her words and express her clearly in her own language without diminishing or distorting her original concept. [19659002] Generally speaking, you have to translate your mother tongue. We are talking about a "source language" that is the foreign language we are translating, and a "target language" that is our own language, and into which we translate foreign text. In fact, people who speak only their own language, especially when they have a scholarly education, usually master their mother tongue perfectly; they know their most hidden secrets, variants, and the different shades that one word can express in a context. Foreign languages ​​are acquired at school or at university, but usually they are not able to actively learn, but only passively understand it to allow them to read special books that they need to consult. People who are thoroughly studying foreign languages ​​and thoroughly mastering it are very few, unless they want to be foreign language teachers or translators. They are being taught as bilingual professionals who need to be able to handle their own language perfectly. In addition, they should know the "source language". This is "conditio sine qua non" for the translator because otherwise you will never be able to obtain a reliable version of your native language.

I would like to quote Ortega y Gasset again. He says that "Schleiermacher theologian" in his essay on the various forms of translation "argues that the version is a movement that can be tested in two opposite directions: either the author is in the reader's language or the reader is the author's language." According to Ortega y Gasset "Only if we pull the reader out of his linguistic habits and force him to move among his authors there is a real translation:" He believes that Plato's only translation is truly faithful and exactly Schleiermacher "because he deliberately renounced to make a nice translation. . ", but kept all the elements that correspond to the Plateau style to give the truth. Therefore, the translation must be complete, accurate and faithful, even if it is ugly.

Undoubtedly, Ortega y Gasset's statement is that translation must first and foremost be complete and correct, but it is absolutely ugly because it claims that the reader is still more or less valid on the author's translation of ancient Greek and Roman authors as well , as in the case of scientific and technical texts that need to be accurate but do not need to be beautiful. The translation of classical Greek and Roman authors takes place in a geographical and temporal way because the reader has to go far in time and imagine the environment and culture of the peoples to understand their lives and their business. They are very far from our presence and aspirations, which makes it a bit difficult to understand.

However, translation does not have to be ugly from the literary point of view, as Movement Schleiermacher wants to give. On the contrary, correct translations can be made, which also show great beauty with the maximum fidelity of the author's ideas and at the same time adapting to the "target language" in their form.

Some of the languages ​​in history have such great translations that can be considered a conformation model in their own language. One such translation of the Martin Luther Bible into German. Certainly, it had been a translation of the Bible earlier (after 1466 fourteen translations were translated into the great German language and after 1480 three versions of the lower German). But these translations were based on Latin Vulgata, not the original Hebrew and Greek texts. The latter made it accessible thanks to the truly unique philological role of Erasmus in Rotterdam, who published the original Greek text of the New Testament in 1516. This text was the source of Martin Luther, and in 1517 he began to translate some psalms. In 1522 the first version of the New Testament was published in German; The Old Testament was printed in 1523, and in 1534, after a great philological effort, the whole oeuvre was completed. Thus, Martin Luther did a great deal of work because it was the first time that he needed to create the language necessary for the German Bible.

He achieved that he combines objective accuracy with inner religious riches and popular speech. Luther found it particularly understandable for the common people. "You have to ask your mother in your home, children on the small neighboring streets, the ordinary people on the market, and watch their mouths to see how they talk and interpret them." He can understand us and find out they speak German. "These are Luther his own words (Sendbrief von Dolmetschen = Message on Interpretation, 1530). He liked to express himself in a very graphic way. On the one hand, he knew the religious language of mysticism and the rhythm of the humanist style, and found the most understandable phonetics in the Middle East German written and legal language at the time Germany was divided into several dialects. In any case, his remarkable linguistic talent and the deep understanding of the naturally born living spoken language with rich psychological content and directly into the heart of the reader have had a huge impact on the success of his work. Thus, the intimate universe created the modern modern German base of Martin Luther's biblical language

with the people, the deep religious emotions, the exact word, and the expressive spiritual power. Scripture is very similar to the English translation known as "King James Version". Although this was not the first book in English, because this honor was reserved for Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the translation of the Bible in 1611 was improved by the King of Kings for the best English scholars who translated it directly from Greek and Hebrew originals

is a remarkable example of a correct translation and a fine example of the literary aspect of the work of Shakespeare's German translation by AW Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck in the nineteenth century. According to German experts, this version is even more beautiful than the English original.

By working on the translation of classical books, which are separated by one or more centuries, is usually a problem when adapting these works to today's. For example, when I translated Goethe Werter in Spanish, I had to resolve the dilemma: Should I use Spanish in a language that would be closer to the times when she wrote the German story, or more comfortably expressed her thoughts in a modern Spanish? After careful consideration, I decided to concentrate on the readers whom this book was about to reach. In this specific case, the issue was a budget release that was widely distributed and therefore a rather archaic language would be too difficult to understand for many readers. So I decided that I did not use a sophisticated and very academic language, but a correct modern language, but in no way conversational.

As a conclusion we can see that translation is an art and demanding profession, not only a banal profession is available to anyone who thinks he can translate just because he is fluent in reading a foreign language. It's no coincidence that really good translators are very few in the history of mankind.

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