When the world speaks of science, culture, economics or politics, it speaks English. English does not need a second language at all. So what is the use of the second language, if the first is enough? English speakers are looking for luxury elements: cultural and linguistic enrichment. In this article I evaluate the world's major language for English speakers based on the following three different criteria:

  1. Demography: Possibility to actively use the language: the number of speakers in the native language and the second language, and to communicate with them in the language : use the lingua franca. It's not just a question of numbers. Mandarin is by far the most spoken language, but it is concentrated in a country, in China, and this reduces its impact. For Hindi speakers, educated speakers are most likely to speak English, so it has greatly reduced the opportunity to speak with the Hindi people.
  2. Personal Impact: This subjective criterion examines the impact on students. How does this language development evolve the sophistication of the learner's own language skills, whether in English or in other languages?
  3. Business Factors: How will this language open new business and trade opportunities?

I. Criterion Demographics: I start with demographic data, because that is the criterion that first recalls in such a debate. However, this factor weighs ratings by only 40%, and certain entries, such as Italian, Swahili, and Turkish, are only available if the following tables are noticed:

  1. in Spanish: 350 million native speakers and many other speakers in American, North African and other countries. This is the official language of about 20 countries. (6 points). An important lingua franca in the western hemisphere and in the Mediterranean, (3 points). (total: 9 points)
  2. French: Despite a relatively small mother tongue base of 130 million, the French is a large presence internationally, has a large second-world population all over the world and has official language status in more than 25 countries. Working languages ​​of several international organizations (4 points). This is the most respected lingua franca in English. (4 points). (total: 8 points)
  3. Arabic: Arabic performers are difficult to quantify. The second dialect of 250 million people in the modern modern Arab world, but completely different from Arabic in all 20 official countries where it is official. This is the official language of the United Nations and many international organizations. This is also the language of Islam. (4.5 points). Arabic is one of the largest lingua franca. (2 points). (Total: 6.5 points)
  4. Russian: Estimates of indigenous populations fall to 185 million, and this is the second language in all the nations of the former Soviet Union (3 points). By virtue of the language of the language, Russia spent most of the twentieth century as a language franchise in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and this ability has continued to decline significantly. (2 points). (total: 5 points)
  5. Mandarin: This is the mother tongue of 875 million people, but concentrates in one country, China. This is the second language for other Chinese, Taiwan and Chinese communities around the world. There are too few currencies over the national borders and only in this context lingua franca. (Total: 3 points)
  6. German: About 120 million native speakers and many second language speakers across Europe. (2 points). With the linguistic franchise of Central Europe, it has been able to restore the catastrophic history of the last century, but this role has in the meantime been taken in Russian and English (1 point). (Total: 3 points)
  7. Hindustani: The ruler is at one end, the other is Hindi, approx. 185 million Indians and 50 million Pakistan. This is another language for 180 million people in this country. In addition to this context, there was no successful lingua franca as this goal is served by English. They were also burdened by the reluctance of the speakers of South Indian dravidians. (total: 2.5 points)
  8. Swahili: 5 million people and 50 million other languages ​​speak on the East African coast. Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania official language (1 point). It swallows the lingua franca adopted there after having reached almost neutral "tribal" status in a continent where language is politics, but relations with the world are generally Arabic, English and French (1.5 points). (total: 2.5 points)
  9. Portuguese: spoke about. 190 million people, the official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola and other countries. You have not yet been able to create yourself as a widely used lingua franca. (Total: 2 points)
  10. Turkish: 70 million people talk to Turkey and Cyprus (1 point). It offers an alternative language franchise in the Central Asian Turkish language areas, and replaces the foreign Russian (1 point). (Total: 2 points)
  11. Japan: 125 million people speak Japanese but have little currency than a second language or a lingua franca. (Total: 1 point)
  12. Italian: 60 million people speak in Italy, this is also the official language of the Vatican. There is little or no significance as a second language or a lingua franca. (1 point)

II. Criterion: Personal Impact: This is the main aspect of English speech. 40% in my assessment. How will this language learn in understanding English? How will you open your language skills to other related languages? The Latin language has a particular advantage for the first question, since sermons and erudite forms of English language are all constructed of Latin vocabulary. The second question supports languages ​​that can be considered as languages ​​of language families wherever they are in the world.

  1. French: Particularly involved in Latin languages ​​as it was the main channel for Latin vocabulary in English for the past thousand years. The total number of English words is 30 per cent French (6 points). From a cultural point of view, one can not overestimate the center of France for European civilization, with an additional 6 points. (Total: 12 points)
  2. Spanish: This Latin language has a tremendous influence on American English. This was influenced by the indigenous language of the Arab and Colombian Colombian countries and gained insight into these languages. (4 points). Spanish culture continues to be at the forefront of Western civilization, ironically, often because of its 4-point rival, North American English. (total: 8 points)
  3. Italian: The direct descendant of Latin. Thus the knowledge of Italian is an exceptionally clear concept of classical language. Likewise, this central romantic language, and the study of a second or third romantic language greatly facilitates when the first learned Italian. (4 points). Italian has also opened up the range of cultural knowledge for two thousand years and represents the highest achievements of the Roman Empire, Catholic tradition and the Italian Renaissance, European civilization. (4 points). (total: 8 points)
  4. German: The linguistic significance of English speakers is great. German clearly shows the Germanic roots of English as well as the syntactic and grammatical logic of the basic English language. As German as a German language, other German languages, such as Dutch and Yiddish, can be considered as portals. (4 points). German culture is also highly appreciated in Western culture, and its philosophies and artists are key. (2 points). (total: 6 points)
  5. Arabic: Although the immediate language impact of studying Arabic is difficult to understand English speech, the Arab benefits of studying other languages ​​are high. The Arab influenced the Middle East and other languages ​​of the Muslim world in religion, politics and social life. The study of the Arabic alphabet opens up the way to many other languages, such as Persian, Urdu, Kurd, etc. (3 points). Arab culture had a significant influence on western civilization, but it is largely unknown in the English-speaking world. Knowledge of the language leads to a better understanding of Islam. (2 points). (total: 5 points)
  6. Hindustani: In Hindi format, this is a window about the origins of the larger Indo-European language family with the Sanskrit vocabulary. In Urdu, it gives a significant introduction to many Persian and Arabic terms. Urdu also uses the Persian form of the Arabic script, which opens the way for wider studies. This is the starting point for studying the other language of the subcontinent, which is rich in languages. (3 points). India's rich culture has become increasingly popular in the English-speaking world, largely due to the fact that India must be able to display English-language images. However, Hindustani language and Hindi culture have also spread through the Bollywood film industry. Pakistan needs to awaken its presence, but the potential is there. (2 points). (total: 5 points)
  7. Russian: Because of geographic isolation, it did not have a significant influence on the West. However, this is the largest Slavic language, and as such opens the way to a number of other Eastern European languages. In addition, the Cyrillic alphabet is a great tool for reading many of these languages. (2 points). The great Russian culture flourished during the years of Czarism and Communism, and occupied a significant place in European civilization. (2 points). (Total: 4 points).
  8. Portuguese: As a Latin language, Portuguese has a built-in significance for English speakers, even if it is directly related to English. (3 points). Brazil's cultural significance, one of the largest nations in the Americas, is growing steadily. (1 point). (total: 4 points)
  9. Mandarin: The official Chinese language has had little impact on English. This influenced the other national languages ​​of the territories, such as Korean and Japanese, as well as other "dialects" in China. Chinese written characters are the same for each dialect, and many of these characters are used in Japanese as well. (2 points). Chinese culture with more than two thousand years of history is very important if it is not directly applicable to English-speaking civilization. (1.5 points). (Total: 3.5 points)
  10. Swahili: The only Sub-Saharan language in the group serves to present the student to one of the richest language areas in the Earth. It comes from the Bantu language family, but has many words in Arabic, Persian, English and French. (1.5 points). It is the language of trade in the East African coast, and as such, it is richly described in the culture there. The West African Diaspora is one of the Americas among the massive migration of the past 500 years, but has left many millions of people out of African culture because of its tragic social dynamics. The Swahili, though they come from East Africa and not from West Africa, help fill this gap. (1.5 points). (Total: 3 points)
  11. Turkish: Although there are few direct links to English, this is the main language of the family of languages ​​that moves eastward to the Chinese interior. Persian, Kurdish and Arabic language influenced and thus introduced some of these languages. (1.5 points). It also represents the culture of Ottoman traditions, modern Turkish and Central Asian Turkish culture. (1 point). (total: 2.5 points)
  12. Japanese: This language has little impact on English and has little insight into other languages. However, it is composed of many Chinese words and uses many Chinese characters. (0.5 points). This island was one of the most important breeding history exporter of the last century. (1.5 points). (Total: 2 points)

III. Criteria. Economic Impact Is this language useful in trade and the business world? Certainly, English is the most useful language for business, but knowing another key language can be a plus. Twenty percent of the ratings:

  1. French: has a long history of trade and commerce. This is extremely important in the developing world, especially in Africa. France is the sixth largest economy in the world. (4 points)
  2. Spanish: is Latin American commercial and commercial language. Spain is the ninth largest economy in the world and Mexico is the 14th largest. (4 points)
  3. German: often engages in business in Central Europe. Germany is the third largest economy in the world. (3 points)
  4. Japanese: can be extremely useful in Japanese business. Japan is the second largest economy in the world. (3 points)
  5. Mandarin: China has recently become the world's fourth largest economy and continues to grow. (3 points)
  6. Russian: Used in a world where English is not known. Russia is the 11th largest economy and goes up in the ranking. (2 points)
  7. Portuguese: Brazil is the tenth largest economy and continues to grow. (2 points)
  8. Arabic: is the commercial and commercial language of the Middle East and Persian Gulf. (2 points)
  9. Hindustani: is used in the world's twelfth largest economy, but English language often appears in the language of business. (2 points)
  10. Italian: is the commercial language in Italy, the seventh largest economy in the world. (1.5 points)
  11. Swahili: is the business language along the eastern African coast. (1 point)
  12. Turkish: is used in the world's seventh largest economy and to a certain extent in Central Asia. (1 point)

Arabic: 13.5 points

  • French: 24 points
  • Spanish: 21 points [19659046] English: 13,5 points
  • German : 12 points
  • Russian: 11 points
  • Italian: 10.5 points
  • Hindustani 9.5 points
  • Mandarin: 9.5 points
  • Portuguese: 8 points
  • : 6.5
  • Japanese: 5.5 points
  • Turkish: 5.5 points
  • Some readers know George Weber's well-known piece Top Languages ​​ Today in 1997. His study of languages ​​and their influence in the world and their world culture has been evaluated. It is interesting to compare them at this point. Here are Weber results:

    1. English: 37 points
    2. French: 23
    3. Spanish: 20
    4. Russian: 16
    5. Arabic: 14
    6. Chinese: 13
    7. German: 12 [19659046] Japanese: 10
    8. Portuguese: 10
    9. Hindi / Urdu: 9 points

    The rankings are similar to some big differences. The criteria are based on tangible and intangible benefits for the English-speaking speaker, which is not weighed by the Weber paradigm. Thus, this subjective target, for the sake of European languages, makes my results accentuated by the cultural affinity of English in the language of Western civilization

    . Heritage Languages: The most striking example of difference is the Italian number 6, while Weber is not in the top 10. My Truth is the phenomenon of "heritage" in Italian, that is, a language that will benefit the understanding and recognition of the past rather than the future. Italian is a means of getting acquainted with ancient history, the development of Latin languages, Renaissance art and classical music. This is also the ancient language of more than 100 million people strategically located in North and South America. For these reasons, the heritage language is excellent. Other languages, which in my lists enjoy this inheritance factor, are German and Swahili.

    Points in English? French, 24 points, the first in my list. Where is English? If I find it useful for speakers in other languages, I give 10 points in each category with a total of 50 points. I think that the extraordinary position of English in today's world is indisputable and twice as useful as the next race, France is not a great part of imagination.

    The only English point sharing that can explain ten points to the language value. The English language in this area is very wide and significant to world performers. English is the carrier of the concept of classical Latin vocabulary for abstract concepts, for Greek-Roman concepts by government, science, philosophy, etc. For. It absorbs the vocabulary of the world without major changes and effectively spreads the new terminology from different sources. As the official language of international organizations, each nation and organization serves as a showroom to present itself to the world. Like the other "empire" languages ​​of Western Europe, the French and the Spanish, the English language is transmitted by mother tongue native speakers who do not have ethnic, social or political relations in the mother tongue. But the English goes a step further, the English is able to fully develop and evolve, regardless of native speakers. The second user of the English language introduces new words such as "informatics" and "ufology", which first earn money among the performers. Foreign governments closely control their English nomenclature and change them through the UN and non-governmental organizations. These changes are therefore immediately available in English, without consultation with native speakers. While some European languages ​​still call the capital of China as "Beijing", the British replaced "Beijing" in the late 1980s (see the contemporary reports on Tian An Men Square in June 1989). Recently, the transition from Bombay to Mumbai has occurred before most English speakers have noticed it. – English language proficiency brings the mother tongue into a unique position worldwide. We have the opportunity to live in a rural English-speaking environment in which the world comes to us or take advantage of this favorable situation to get acquainted with other cultures within our own language. So every second language is very useful for English speakers? No study can truly measure the personal significance of second language learning. This is something we have to discover. The fact that every language deserves a learning aspiration, because every language is the perfect way to describe the universe of human performance, and so the significance is as wide and deep as we personally do.

    Statistics: The statistics I use (population, economic rankings, etc.) come from different sources: secular almanacs, encyclopedias, US government studies. I do not make any statements about their accuracy, as these are general estimates. Their relevance is related to each other.

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