Translation always represents the original text (or "source text" or "text of departure"); there is some degree of equivalence in this regard, although the concept of strict equivalence of languages ​​now exceeds translation studies. The translation concept has long been a dichotomy, like "loyalty" versus "freedom," loyalty to the letter, "loyalty to the soul," etc.

The translation takes into account a number of parameters (context, grammar, etc.) in order to make it clear to people who do not know the source language and not the same culture or the same knowledge2. The translation includes the source language, but also the target language (or the recipient), which is usually the mother tongue. A good translator is more than language skills: he must be able to analyze the text and himself have the quality of writing. To translate scientific and technical texts, you must have strong technical knowledge and have the jargon in both languages.

Translation is still essentially human, but the computer tools of automated translation (computer-assisted translation) are displayed.

The role of translation and language in thoughts and information traffic

In space and time, the intensity of intercultural communication and exogenous exchange are largely dependent on the translation of one language volume and quality of information, but history shows that the movement and reputation of the theory should not be confused with quantum aspects of wider spoken languages. In particular, the number of loudspeakers in spoken languages ​​is not a good predictor of the ability to translate and circulate messages that have been generated in this language or are in circulation in that language; according to the linguist David Crystal, "which explains that a language becomes a world, has little to do with the number of people speaking, rather" who "these speakers." The network of bilingual speakers and translators is therefore of great importance in this respect

Since the nineteenth century and with the "intellectual property law" and the globalization and regulation of translation, more languages ​​and cultures are more or less "translated" or even faster, as before, or have died or forgotten (a dead tongue like Latin, can still be translated).

Some authors describe the emergence of a new network and global system of languages, where English plays, dominates and plays a central role. However, English-language hegemonic cultural stability is limited to the improvement and generality of the Internet's automatic translation program and the innovative approach of your wiki-ment, which encourages and facilitates the "Translation and Interlinguistic Exchange Programs in Wikipedia and its Projects Brothers (287 languages ​​as far as possible by the end of 2013)

Analyze the relative position of the world's language in the absence of relevant data, note Mark Davis (president and co-founder of the Unicode Consortium, who produces standards for coding numbers with all the computers and the planet's mobile interface by writing), while still sensing the structure of this network, it has long been impossible to quantitatively examine the la but it becomes easier for the globe such as Wikipedia or Twitter, as well as providing a better and better understanding of the languages ​​spoken on the Internet.

In 2014 An International The US-French team used the science of networks to create maps to show how information and ideas are circulating around the world (according to the language of the original message, according to the average GDP of the countries where the language is spoken) from the first translators' language and from those who mediate the information or the Media (book, Wikipedia, Twitter). For the purpose of compiling this "map", these researchers are, on the one hand, available data in literary translation (based on 2,2 million translations of books in more than 1000 languages), and two major global exchange programs in Language11,16, which are:

bilingual tweets (with 550 million tweets, in 17 languages ​​selected for the study in 73 languages), which is possible thanks to the open database, and because it allows a beep to be a language and a person who publishes language divisions associated with one or more communities; (DBPedia)

An analysis of these data shows that:

is an important interface of the network interface "interfacage" languages , shadows examined by the media

Without a surprise, English is the most important and effective way of interacting with other languages ​​in order to convey a vision or information in the world (network mapping the brain, more central). Secondly, especially between translation and translation techniques

What is the difference between method and translation technique? Well, very simple: the translation method affects the whole of the translation, while the translation technique changes on a case-by-case basis within the same text, based on the ad hoc word elements as a translation. The classic systematic of translation processes for 1958, ie J.-P. Vinay and J. Darbelnet. There are seven categories:

1. Loaning

Loaning is a translation process that uses the expression of a word or phrase in the source text of the target text. The loan is generally italicized. Actually reproduces the original text. In this sense, it is a translation technique that does not turn …

Example: The gaucho was wearing a sombrero-black and a bombshell. The Layer

If a translator uses the lexical layer, it creates or uses neologism in the target language by accepting the source language structure.

Example: German handball is translated into Spanish handball or English skyscraper translated into French skyscrapers.

3. The literal translation

is what Traditionally is called Translation theatrical or theatrical. This is a translation word that leads to the target language text, both of which are correct and idiomatic. According to Vinay and Darbelnet, verbatim translation is only possible between languages ​​in a large cultural context. It is only acceptable if the translated text holds the same syntax, the same report, and the same style as the original text.

Example: What time is it? ⇒ When is this?

4. Moving transposition without shifting from a grammatical category to another without changing the meaning of the text. This technique has changed the grammatical structure.

Example: According to the President ⇒ According to the President

5. Modulation

Modulation modifying the form of the text with semantic or demonstrative semantics

Example: Tal link moonlight ⇒ maybe not you're wrong

. Equivalence

Equivalence is a translation process that makes true equivalence with a completely different term. This technique can be used to translate the names of institutions, interviews, expressions, all acts or proverbs. For example: once bitten, twice shy ⇒ to live in order to catch fish.

7. The adaptation [kulturális szubsztitúció vagy kulturális egyenértékűség] is also known as a cultural element replacing the original text instead of a cultural element more appropriate to the culture of the target language.

For example: baseball ⇒ football from the 1960s

Different authors (Michel Ballard, Hélène Chuquet, Michel Paillard, etc.) reported other translation methods, such as explanation (providing clarifications in the target language text) (use a combination of words that are commonly used in the target language) and compensation (do not refer to or in some parts of the text do not report and compensate later)

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